Magomed Tolboev. Space exploration

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(DOB: January 20, 1951; Dagestan Republic; nationality: Avar)

In 1969 after finishing the Gunib secondary school Tolboev entered Eysk High Military Pilot School and finished studies in 1973. In 1973 – 1980 he served in USSR Air Force. In 1980 –1981 Magomed took courses in Test Pilot School. In 1981 he entered Moscow State Aviation University and was graduated in 1984, later, in 1984 – 1986, he studied at Cosmonaut School named after Yuri Gagarin. Since 1981 till 1993 Tobloev was engaged as a test pilot and test cosmonaut, he took position of Deputy Commander in the special cosmonaut division BURAN. 
In 1993 Magomed was elected to the State Duma of RF Federal Assembly and executed duties of Deputy Head of the Committee on Industry, Transport, Energy and Construction till 1995. In 1993 Tolboev entered the magistracy of Russian University of International Friendship (RUDN) and in 1995 he was graduated as PHD in History (Diploma No 009990 of RF Certification Committee). From 1994 till 1995 he was a member of Presidium of the Russian Congress of Businessmen and Manufacturers. In 1996 - 1998 Tolboev was a Secretary of Security Soviet of Dagestan Republic.

Magomed Tolboev is awarded with some medals and a USSR award.
He is awarded with the USSR award of Work Red Banner for implementation of the program in space exploration in 1988.
Tolboev is awarded with the Gold Star of Hero of Russia No 009 for test flights in 1992.


Magomed Tolboev introduced himself as a politician during the elections of public deputies of the Russian Federation in March 1990. In those times his sincerity and image of brave test pilot gave him opportunity to overtake many other candidates and succumb the deputy mandate to Ramazan Abdulatipov only in few voices. During the propaganda campaign of 1990 his pre-election platform was of medium-reformation direction and included some original offers concerning introduction and development of perspective technologies at enterprises in Dagestan. Then Tolboev has not been acquainted with many influential chiefs of the republic, who (considering some indirect signs) supported Abdulatipov. In condition of majority of agricultural population this support played decisive role. 
In 1991 during elections of the first RF President Magomed Tolboev took active part in the propaganda campaign supporting Boris Eltsin, while the Government of Dagestan supported Nikolay Ryzhkov. In that time Dagestan electorate gave 67% for Eltsin that was higher than average percent in Russia (57%).
During the August putsch of 1991 in Moscow Magomed Tolboev was among defenders of White House and tried to get greater advantages of political victory. Together with Rasul Mikailov, the RF People's Deputy, he tried to dismiss those chiefs, who actively supported the putsch in Mahachkala. Dagestan Government and deputies of the Supreme Soviet were extremely dissatisfied.
In 1993 M. Tolboev was elected as a deputy of the State Duma in Mahachkala administrative region No11, he overtook 15 competitors. Perhaps, because of non-confidence to democratic organizations among the majority of Dagestan population and its sympathy to the RF Communist Party (during the referendum of April, 1993, 88% expressed non-confidence to reformation course), Tolboev was an independent candidate, a centrist, who stood along of "right" and "left" radicals. He put the main accent on necessity of rise in economics due to development of integration relations and technological exchange, and in political sphere - introduction of president control over Dagestan and necessity of creating a hard vertical of executive power. Magomed Tolboev adhere continuous international position and reject separate approaches in his republic as well as in concern to Russia. 
Being the State Duma deputy Tolboev entered in the "New Regional Policy" deputy group. Thanks to his efforts many factories in Dagestan that belongs to the Military Industrial Complex managed to get a state orders and some funds for conversion. Tolboev realized that this is not enough, he tried to establish economical relations with foreign partners. Active position of deputy and organizing of measures aimed in popularity of aerobatics and aviation technique allowed his becoming one of the most popular politicians in Dagestan. 
In July, 1994, during the Constitutional Forum of the Dagestan Republic Magomed Tolboev was presented as a candidate to the position of republic’s head – Chairman of the State Soviet - and he gathered 36,8% vote (442 participants of the Constitutional Forum). The pre-election platform of Tolboev looked rather radical in comparison with that of the acting chairman M.M. Magometov. He offered upgrading of managing staff, attracting Russian and foreign investments, organizing of finance-industrial corporations, rising responsibility of leaders and hard struggle against criminal. But many people considered his offers to be too radical and popular.
In September 1995 Magomed Tolboev made a speech at the State Duma meeting and published it in DIALOG newspaper. This speech included sharp criticism of republic’s leaders for ineffective usage of budget, connivance to pilferage and growth of criminal. This speech has sharpened his opposition to leaders and complicated his election campaign of 1995. At this election he was also an independent candidate with centrist position. During the war in Chechnya Tolboev came out against military methods of making constitutional order in the Chechen Republic, maintain relations with some field commanders and sometimes managed to resolve conflicts between Chechen squads and military forces. 
During the Constitutional Forum of 1996, at which prolonging of authorities for all members of the State Soviet was under decision, Magomed Tolboev made a speech directed neither in support nor opposite to the leading party under the head of M.M. Magomedov, the Chairman of the State Soviet, but he paid attention upon number of opportunities that concerned improving social-economic status of the republic. Some of these opportunities were quiet real, but some looked rather innovative. 
In April 1996 Tolboev was elected as the Chairman of the Public Movement of Democratic and Centrist Forces. This public movement supported Boris Eltsin.
In July 1996 Magomed Tolboev was assigned the Secretary of Security Soviet of the Dagestan Republic. Having taken this responsible state position, he appeared in the republic’s mass media with critics against activity of a dozen offices responsible for reproduction of fish resources in the Caspian Sea and ecology and also against the Ministry of Internal Affairs for preparation and discipline. This public critics had negative response, even treat, from the party of the Minister of Internal Affairs. But all the above does not mean dislike of teamwork by Tolboev. 
Playing a new role, Magomed Tolboev has demonstrated his competency and working ability in structures of executive and legislative power in support of state interests. He has overcome his populism and self-confidence that featured him in last years. A disadvantage of Tolboev as a politician is lack of adherent team of systemically thinking politologists and economists. His technocratic thinking and insufficient education in economics sometimes lead to forming a facilitated way of solving many complex problems. 
Tolboev’s advantages are his accessibility and sincerity, which are more characteristic for Russian mentality. Last years also have made him more restrained and diplomatic in communication that is more characteristic for local mentality. 
Taking position of the Secretary of the Security Soviet Tolboev has sharply activated implementation of the program directed to struggle against the organized criminality. He has forced struggle against sea poachers. The Dagestan State Order and Government Statement aimed to reorganizing of state offices busy with reproduction and guarding of fish resources were developed. 
Tolboev has promoted a problem of military service at the territory of the republic. Now 2 000 young men from Dagestan settlements do their military service along the state boarder of the republic.

Political principles of Magomed Tolboev:
- forming state approach to Human Resources;
- leaders of national movements must not execute functions of the state power;
- hard struggle against the organized criminality;
- legality of shaded economical structures and state control over these structures;
- weeding out mass avoiding of military service in the RF army.

By information – analytical service of the State Soviet and Peoples Forum of the Dagestan Republic
August, 1998

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